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Manufacturing process



Manufacturing of wax models

A wax model is manufactured by injecting wax into a metal mould.

Assembly (bonding) of trees

The manufactured wax models are bonded or soldered onto suitable inlet systems.

Manufacturing of shells

A shell is manufactured by dipping a wax tree in ceramic slurry. After dripping, the tree dipped in ceramic slurry is sprinkled with grog of a suitable grain size. 
The process is repeated approximately 5 times.


De-waxing of the shell takes place in an autoclave, where the wax substance is removed from the shells by the pressure of superheated steam.


The purpose of annealing is to remove any residues of unwanted substances, such as water and wax, from the shell and to make it achieve its required mechanical strength.

Melting and casting

The required material is melted in an induction furnace at a temperature of up to 1700 ºC. After performing the chemical analysis, the molten metal is poured into the annealed shells.

Final stage of production

The ceramic moulding mixture is removed from the cooled shell manually or mechanically. Then the tree is blast cleaned and the castings are separated from the inlet stack. The inlet residues are ground off from the casting, which is followed by common procedures to achieve the required shape and surface finishing.